, The revolutionary committee headed by Niceto Alcalá-Zamora became the provisional government, with Alcalá-Zamora as president and head of state. Consequently, the Nationalists called Lisbon "the port of Castile". The argument that Mr Gil Robles tried to destroy the Constitution to establish fascism was, at once, hypocritical and false.  Franco was a key player because of his prestige as a former director of the military academy and as the man who suppressed the Asturian miners' strike of 1934. Click here to request Getty Images Premium Access through IBM Creative Design Services.  They took Cádiz with help from the first troops from Africa. Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76; slightly different figures, 344,000 and 558,000, in earlier study completed using the same method, see Diez Nicolas (1985), p. 48. only those who did not return to Spain, Payne (1987), p. 220. In the moment of their final victory, Nationalists commanded over 900,000 troops. The rebels shot 189 people. , The coup divided the armed forces fairly evenly. The repression in the aftermath was brutal and prisoners were tortured. Answer Save. Spanish Pavilion. , The Nacionales or Nationalists, also called "insurgents", "rebels" or, by opponents, Franquistas or "fascists" —feared national fragmentation and opposed the separatist movements. It officially endorsed the boycott and expelled a faction that demanded support for the Republican cause; but it finally voiced some support to Loyalists. © 2020 Getty Images. La guerra civile spagnola : 1936-1939. The Condor Legion proved to be especially useful in the 1936 Battle of the Toledo.  Some sources claim that by the conflict's end, 20 percent of the nation's clergy had been killed. In July, it made a move to recapture Segovia, forcing Franco to delay his advance on the Bilbao front, but for only two weeks. By the War's end, perhaps 56,000 Nationalist soldiers, encompassing infantry, artillery, aerial and naval forces, had been trained by German detachments. A contributory factor in the successful Republican defense was the effectiveness of the Fifth Regiment and later the arrival of the International Brigades, though only an approximate 3,000 foreign volunteers participated in the battle. [note 55] Some scholars go even further and calculate the war's "population loss" or "demographic impact"; in this case they might include also (10) migration abroad: 160,000[note 56] to 730,000[note 57] and (11) decrease in birth rate: 500,000[note 58] to 570,000. In one particular incident, following the capture of Bilbao, they took hundreds of people, including 16 priests who had served as chaplains for the Republican forces, to the countryside or graveyards and murdered them. la guerra civile spagnola cominció nel 1936. e duró fino al 1939 sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFPayne2011 (, Franco-Soviet Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–Czechoslovakia Treaty of Mutual Assistance, Soviet–British–French Moscow negotiations, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista, Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, agreement signed in Munich between Hitler and Chamberlain, Evacuation of children in the Spanish Civil War, president of the Generalitat of Catalonia, Alfonso Carlos I de Borbón y Austria-Este, Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las JONS, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, List of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War, List of foreign ships wrecked or lost in the Spanish Civil War, List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War, List of war films and TV specials#Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), merger of the other factions on the Nationalist side. The reforms of 1812 were overturned when King Ferdinand VII dissolved the Constitution and ended the Trienio Liberal government. The work's size (11 ft by 25.6 ft) grabbed much attention and cast the horrors of the mounting Spanish civil unrest into a global spotlight. Advertizing Wikipedia. 3. Loading... Franca's other lessons. Everyday low prices and free delivery on eligible orders. The Republican government under Giral resigned on 4 September, unable to cope with the situation, and was replaced by a mostly Socialist organisation under Francisco Largo Caballero. The policy of evacuating children to foreign countries was initially opposed to by elements in the government as well as private charities, who saw the policy as unnecessary and harmful to the well-being of the evacuated children. Balcells notes that Spanish society was so divided along Left-Right lines that the monk Hilari Raguer stated that in his parish, instead of playing "cops and robbers", children would sometimes play "leftists and rightists. General José Sanjurjo became the figurehead of the operation and helped reach an agreement with the Carlists.  In the occupied areas, the rebels officially declared the proletarian revolution and abolished regular money. However, enough officers and soldiers had joined the coup to prevent it from being crushed swiftly. Quick action by either the rebels or anarchist militias was often enough to decide the fate of a town. , The rebels failed to take any major cities with the critical exception of Seville, which provided a landing point for Franco's African troops, and the primarily conservative and Catholic areas of Old Castile and León, which fell quickly. , The movement of arms from Russia to Spain was extremely slow.  Air raids committed against Republican cities were another driving factor. definition - Aerei_militari_della_guerra_civile_spagnola.  However, while in the Nationalist zone the rising stock of money was only marginally above the production growth rate, in the Republican zone it by far exceeded dwindling production figures. Class struggle intensified as landowners turned to counterrevolutionary organisations and local oligarchs. The JAP salute, which consisted of stretching the right arm horizontally to touch the left shoulder enjoyed only relatively little acceptance. highest considered estimate, Bowen, Wayne H. (2006), delta between the total number of deaths recorded in 1936–1939 and the total which would have resulted from extrapolating average annual death total from the 1926–1935 period, Ortega, Silvestre (2006), p. 76. does not include post-war losses, Payne, Stanley G. (2012). Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. SALVADOR DALI' e PABLO PICASSO (Malaga, 1881- Mougins, 1973) CUBISMO  The Republican government acted to remove suspect generals from influential posts.  The arbitrary use of lethal force by the state and a lack of action against the attackers led to public disapproval of the government.  It has also been argued that officers who stayed loyal to the Republic were more likely to have been promoted and to have been favoured by the Republican regime (such as those in the Aviation and Assault Guard units). , After the War, Spanish policy leaned heavily towards Germany, Portugal and Italy, since they had been the greatest Nationalist supporters and aligned with Spain ideologically.  Manuel Azaña Díaz was called to form a government before the electoral process had ended. ti sbagli. The offensive led to an advance of 50 square kilometres (19 sq mi), and left 25,000 Republican casualties. Agrarian issues would be solved by regional commissioners on the basis of smallholdings but collective cultivation would be permitted in some circumstances. 123.  He was respected in the Army of Africa, the Army's toughest troops.  On 21 May 1937, around 4,000 Basque children were evacuated to the UK on the aging steamship SS Habana from the Spanish port of Santurtzi. Upon their arrival two days later in Southampton, the children were sent to families all over England, with over 200 children accommodated in Wales. Asociación Cultural Memoria de España.  Goded and Franco immediately took control of the islands to which they were assigned. Following the war, wide swathes of Spanish society, including the armed forces, united in hopes of removing the corrupt central government, but were unsuccessful.  Others died in acts of revenge after Republicans heard of massacres carried out in the Nationalist zone. , Like clergy, civilians were executed in Republican territories. Comments are disabled. Not Now. 215,000 in combat, 200,000 killed in rearguard, 70,000 due to wartime hardships, 11,000 civilian victims of military operations; the author later rounds up the total to 0,5m, Alonso Millán, Jesús (2015). , Unlike the United States and major Latin American governments, such as the ABC nations and Peru, Mexico supported the Republicans. 80 likes. "esta cruenta lucha le costó a España 1 200 000 muertos entre combatientes y civiles", Pazos Beceiro, Carlos (2004). On March 5, 1939, Colonel Segismundo Casado led a military coup against the Republican government. The great majority did so and were turned over to the Francoist authorities in Irún. , Significant numbers of volunteers came from France (10,000), Nazi Germany and Austria (5,000), and Italy (3,350).  In May, an incident where a taxi driver was attacked outside a monarchist club sparked anti-clerical violence throughout Madrid and south-west Spain. sfn error: no target: CITEREFPreston1983 (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFPaynePalacios2014 (, Balcells, Laia. and Alexander Calder's Fuente de mercurio (Mercury Fountain) a protest work by the American against the Nationalist forced control of Almadén and the mercury mines there. Labour arbitration boards were set up to regulate salaries, contracts and working hours; they were more favourable to workers than employers and thus the latter became hostile to them. Create your lesson!  In December, a new reformist, liberal, and democratic constitution was declared. However, the end of the Civil War and later the Second World War saw the isolation of the country from most other nations until the 1950s, in which the American anti-Communist international policy favoured having a far-right and extremely anti-communist ally in Europe.. Apart from bias/ill will, incompetence or changing access to sources, the differences result chiefly from categorisation and methodology issues. 288–289; also Matthews 2010, p. 346. sfn error: no target: CITEREFThomas1987 (. However, the intervention also posed the risk of escalating into a world war for which Hitler was not ready. Condition: Buone Hardcover.  The Royal Italian Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) played a substantial role in the Mediterranean blockade, and ultimately Italy supplied machine guns, artillery, aircraft, tankettes, the Aviazione Legionaria, and the Corpo Truppe Volontarie (CTV) to the Nationalist cause. Pinnwände sind ideal zum Speichern von Bildern und Videoclips. Vai a: Navigazione, cerca. With the rebellion of 1934, the Spanish left lost even the shadow of moral authority to condemn the rebellion of 1936.”, Reversals of land reform resulted in expulsions, firings, and arbitrary changes to working conditions in the central and southern countryside in 1935, with landowners' behaviour at times reaching "genuine cruelty", with violence against farmworkers and socialists, which caused several deaths. sfn error: no target: CITEREFWieland2002 (. , This faction was called variously leales "Loyalists" by supporters, "Republicans", the "Popular Front", or "the government" by all parties; and/or los rojos "the Reds" by their opponents. Zara Steiner, The Triumph of the Dark: European International History 1933–1939 (Oxford History of Modern Europe) (2013), pp. The land-based oligarchy remained powerful; a small number of people held large estates called latifundia as well as all the important government positions. Produced by both nationalists and republicans, propaganda allowed Spaniards a way to spread awareness about their war all over the world. , A large air and sealift of Nationalist troops in Spanish Morocco was organised to the southwest of Spain. , The Republican government then launched an all-out campaign to reconnect their territory in the Battle of the Ebro, from 24 July until 26 November, where Franco personally took command. Abroad, Spain is classified as insolvent. The Spanish Civil War: a very short introduction. perché non leggi co cura. Partecipa all'assemblea di Wikimedia Italia il 20 marzo a Pistoia. , As the war progressed, the government and the communists were able to exploit their access to Soviet arms to restore government control over the war effort, through diplomacy and force. Tusell, Javier, Martín, José Luis, Shaw, Carlos (2001), e.g. , Mola, Franco's second-in-command, was killed on 3 June, in an airplane accident. 58–59, Simpson, James, and Juan Carmona. Molti vi combattono e dedicano opere alla vicenda: Hemingway, Orwell, Malraux, Koestler, Neruda, Machado, Mirò, Picasso: per tutti la Spagna resta un’esperienza indimenticabile. , The armies kept growing. Casares did nothing, failing to arrest or buy off Franco. , In 1868, popular uprisings led to the overthrow of Queen Isabella II of the House of Bourbon. They never suffered from serious partisan activity behind their lines and the fact that banditry did not develop into a serious problem in Spain, despite how easy it would have been in such mountainous terrain, demands explanation.  According to historian Paul Preston, the minimum number of those executed by the rebels is 130,000, and is likely to have been far higher, with other historians placing the figure at 200,000 dead. The Bombing of Guernica was the most controversial. Other efforts included decrees limiting the use of machinery, efforts to create a monopoly on hiring, strikes and efforts by unions to limit women's employment to preserve a labour monopoly for their members. Although a Non-Intervention Committee was formed, its policies accomplished little and its directives were ineffective. Even the staunch socialist Indalecio Prieto, at a party rally in Cuenca in May 1936, complained: "we have never seen so tragic a panorama or so great a collapse as in Spain at this moment. (12 April) Municipal elections, King Alfonso XIII abdicates. There was little support for the monarchy in the major cities. The figure they arrive at for the 1936–1939 period is 346,000; the figure for 1936–1942, including the years of postwar deaths resulting from terror and war sufferings, is 540,000.  After the restoration of the Bourbons in December 1874, Carlists and Anarchists emerged in opposition to the monarchy. Aj. Other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic, and the United States, continued to recognise the Republican government, but followed an official policy of non-intervention. Finally, the final months of 1936 saw the arrival of foreign troops, International Brigades joining the Republicans and Italian CTV, German Legion Condor and Portuguese Viriatos joining the Nationalists. N2 - Introduction. These included non-combatants such as trade-unionists, Popular Front politicians, suspected Freemasons, Basque, Catalan, Andalusian, and Galician Nationalists, Republican intellectuals, relatives of known Republicans, and those suspected of voting for the Popular Front. , Many such acts were committed by reactionary groups during the first weeks of the war. Foreigners contributed little to further growth; on the Nationalist side the Italians scaled down their engagement, while on the Republican side the influx of new interbrigadistas did not cover losses on the front. The principal source of manpower was conscription; both sides continued and expanded their schemes, the Nationalists drafting more aggressively, and there was little room left for volunteering. when assessing financial cost of waging the war, some scholars limit their analysis to foreign resources only and set expenditures of both sides at some $0,7bn each, compare e.g. Organised purges occurred in territory captured by Franco's forces so they could consolidate their future regime.  Within hours of learning of the murder and the reaction, Franco changed his mind on rebellion and dispatched a message to Mola to display his firm commitment. How to engage your audience in any online presentation; Sept. 2, 2020. Percorso storico sulla Guerra civile spagnola, analizzando le cause della guerra In 1938, George Orwell's Homage to Catalonia, a personal account of his experiences and observations in the war, was published in the United Kingdom. Despite Stalin's interest in aiding the Republicans, the quality of arms was inconsistent.  Shopkeepers and industrialists were shot if they did not sympathise with the Republicans, and were usually spared if they did. Forgot account? By mid-1937, the Catholic Church gave its official blessing to the Franco regime; religious fervor was a major source of emotional support for the Nationalists during the civil war. This page was last edited on 31 December 2018, at 09:29. 32–33. Both sides would invent different characters of the Moorish troops, drawing on a wide range of historical symbols, cultural prejudices and racial stereotypes.  Following the execution of its leader, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, by the Republicans, the party swelled in size to several hundred thousand members.  Many authors opt for a broader view and calculate "death toll" by adding also (4) above-the-norm deaths caused by malnutrition, hygiene shortcomings, cold, illness, etc. , The war was cast by Republican sympathisers as a struggle between tyranny and freedom, and by Nationalist supporters as communist and anarchist red hordes versus Christian civilisation.  The pact proved to be a decisive instrument in keeping the Iberian Peninsula out of Hitler's continental system. Esdaile, Charles J.  While the militias that rose to meet the rebels were often untrained and poorly armed (possessing only a small number of pistols, shotguns and dynamite), this was offset by the fact that the rebellion was not universal. PDF Formatted 8.5 x all pages,EPub Reformatted especially for book readers, Mobi For Kindle which was converted from the EPub file, Word, The original source document. The right and the Catholics supported the Nationalists to stop the spread of Bolshevism. The Republican government was anticlerical, and, when the war began, supporters attacked and murdered Roman Catholic clergy in reaction to the news of military revolt.
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